PRECIOUS METAL LOADING MEASUREMENT
Inductively Coupled Plasma Analysis (ICP) is a chemical analysis method that can identify both trace amounts and major concentrations of all elements within a sample. For aftertreatment applications, ICP can be used to understand the reduction of precious metals and other catalyst components throughout the systems useful life. This allows for a deeper understanding of aftertreatment ageing mechanisms.
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM)
TEM uses a focused electron beam to give a better understanding of catalyst make-up. TEM can be used to understand the size of precious metal particles in the washcoat and helps understand the effects of precious metal agglomeration throughout ageing.
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM)
SEM is used to produce images of the surface of the catalyst using an electron beam. The images created are used to understand washcoat deterioration pre and post ageing. SEM also can be used to understand material phase changes that occur through ageing.
XRD is an effective method used to determine the crystalline structure of catalyst samples. X-rays interact with electrons orbiting the atoms in matter producing a XRD trace.
BRUNAUER, EMMETT & TELLER (BET) SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS
BET is used to measure the surface area of the washcoat of aftertreatment systems. Washcoat sintering occurs during ageing causing a reduction in active surface area reducing performance. Understanding this rate of reduction in surface area helps understand the decline in performance.